A popular school of thought in many Eastern and meditative traditions, non-dualism is the belief that reality is not composed of many separate objects like trees and people and houses, or of separate concepts like mind and matter, but of only one thing; consciousness. Consciousness doesn’t simply perceive reality, it’s what reality is made of.
In the video above, Embodied Philosophy gives a great primer on non-duality, as well as how it differs from other philosophies on the nature of reality:
Non-Dualism, often denoted with the Sanskrit terms Adviata or Advaya, is a metaphysical concept that literally means “not two”. It is both an ontological claim, about the nature of reality, and a description of the mystical experience.
In all of the worlds philosophical traditions, speculations about the nature of reality are pervasive. One of the recurring questions is: “How many things are there really?”
The concepts of Monism, Dualism and Non-Dualism, are ways in which philosophers have attempted to respond to this question.